Energy policy concepts and choices in Brazil reflect some of the world’s most urgent challenges, such as providing the population with full electricity access and coverage. This has been made possible with a series of policy efforts, investments and climate protection measures. The total demand for energy in Brazil has doubled since the late 1980s due to increasing economic activity, population growth and the emergence of a middle class. The challenge for Brazil in the coming years lies in providing an affordable supply of electricity within climate constraints (dry periods) while taking account of the rising demand for energy, mainly from residential buildings and industry. Policies for energy-efficient household appliances and cross-cutting technologies for the industry, trades, commerce and services sectors are set to gain importance in the coming years, and a greater understanding of the dynamics of electricity demand in the long term will benefit policy and investment decisions.